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SM64DSe Exporting and Importing Models' Bones

Taken from SM64DSe Repo, Exporting And Importing Model Bones

Introduction

Models in SM64DS are often split up into different chunks, 'bones'. This allows each chunk, such as an arm to be animated separately. Each bone has a set of transformations that must be applied to it for it to be displayed properly. (Please see BMD documentation for more information.)

Exporting

When exporting, the bones' transformations are applied so the model looks 'normal' when editing. The model is split up into its different chunks using the OBJ "o" command. Each bone can then be edited separately within the 3D modelling program, eg. Blender. The model can be edited as normal and more bones added if wanted.

Information about each bone is stored in the .bones file created when exporting. This is linked to the .obj file with the line "bonelib FILENAME.bones" at the top of the .obj file.
The .bones file contains the following data on each bone:
newbone: this tells the importer a new bone is being defined and gives the bone name, like the newmtl command in the material library
parent_offset: Offset in bones the current bone's parent
has_children: Whether or not the bone has child bones, 0 - no, 1 - yes
sibling_offset: Offset in bones to the current bone's next sibling.
These three fields are used to determine the bones' hierarchical structure
scale: X, Y and Z Scale transformation of the current bone. (32-bit signed, 20:12 fixed point. Think GX command 0x1B)
rotation: X, Y and Z Rotation transformation of the current bone. (16-bit signed, 0x0400 = 90°)
translation: X, Y and Z Translation of the current bone. (32-bit signed, 20:12 fixed point. Think GX command 0x1C)
These last three fields are stored in hexadecimal format.

Important Notes
- When editing, do not scale your model as this will affect how it appears and how animation works. This isn't really a problem with models without animation.
- Please note that exporting is not perfect when assigning faces to the correct bone due to how BMD files are structured so some manual fixing may be required before re-importing.

An example of what an exported model looks like can be found here (Textures also not perfect due to OBJ limitations).

Importing

When importing the bones' transformations are applied in reverse so that they are restored to their original state and their transformations can be applied again. This is necessary to allow the animation to work. Make sure the .bones is set at the top of the .obj file if you are re-importing bones.
The bones are then written to the BMD file using the information in the .bones file. If not found default values are used and your model will still import though animation won't be working.
Bones are distinguished in your .obj file using the "o" command, eg. "o bone_01" marks the beginning of bone_01's vertices and faces. If no "o" commands are present, the model is treated as one large bone.

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